Almost all of the cases for reformed paedobaptism I have read have referenced Peter’s statement in Acts 2:39 that “the promise” is “for you and your children.” This has always surprised me, for it seems to me that this reading of Acts 2:39 fails to ask some very basic exegetical questions:
1) What is the promise?
In context, the promise is not covenant membership, but the Holy Spirit (2:38, Luke 24:49).
2) Whom is the promise for?
Peter states that the promise of the Holy Spirit is for “you and your children and for all who are far off, everyone whom the Lord our God calls to himself” (2:39). In other words: anyone can receive the Spirit.
3) How does Peter suggest the promise is received?
This is another way of asking, what are the conditions of the promise? The text is clear: repentance (v. 38) and calling (v. 39).
All Peter’s statement means is that anyone (whether children or those far off) who repents (v. 38) and is called (v. 39) can receive the Spirit (v. 38). To get to the desired paedobaptist destination – the covenant membership (rather than the Holy Spirit) of the children of hearers (but not those who are far off) apart from repentance (v. 38) and calling (v. 39) – you have to take three wrong turns, exegetically speaking. I respect my paedobaptist brothers and sisters, but I submit that the frequent usage of this text communicates the difficulty of their case more than anything else.
Its often said that the first century Jewish men hearing Peter’s sermon would have expected their children (from birth) to be included in church, since allegedly this was the pattern set up in the Old Testament with circumcision. This overlooks the fact, which was the pivotal point in my own rejection of paedobaptism, that the sacrament of circumcision was given to all the offspring of Abraham, inter-generationally (Genesis 17:9), not to the “children of believers.” More immediately, in the context of Acts 2, it loses sight of the connotations that baptism already had prior to the birth of the church because of John the Baptist’s baptism, which is explicitly said to be a baptism of repentance (Mark 1:4, Luke 3:3, Acts 19:4). I therefore think first century Jewish listeners would not have had any difficulty understanding Peter’s words in their most natural sense.